突破托福聽力停滯期,教你有效準備托福

不管怎麼作題,聽力始終都沒有太大的起色,成績總是在25分以下徘徊,甚至沒有20分嗎?
托福想要高分,前期準備很重要!底子打不好,很容易拖緩準備托福的腳步,心情上很容易產生厭倦和懈怠,以下就教大家如何有效 突破托福聽力停滯期,教你有效準備托福


突破托福聽力停滯期,教你有效準備托福

常見托福聽力問題:

TPO27托福聽力解析 、 突破托福聽力停滯期,教你有效準備托福

    1. 聽不出單字。
    2. 聽得懂單字但是無法完整理解內容或是很慢。
    3. 抓不到關鍵字句。
    4. 雖然可以聽懂單字,也可以理解內容,但是筆記太慢導致影響聽力。
    5. 筆記內容很多,但是答題時無法從筆記中找出所以需要的資料跟答案。

突破托福聽力停滯期,教你有效準備托福

以下我們就來針對上面的問題一一破解:

【 突破托福聽力停滯期,教你有效準備托福 】- 問題一:聽不出單字。
【 突破托福聽力停滯期,教你有效準備托福 】- 問題一:聽不出單字。

🔵 問題一:聽不出單字。

 

1. 單字量根本不夠
這是基礎功的問題,在要準備托福之前,基本上就需要有一定的單字量,熟悉的基本單字至少要有5,000 字以上再來會比較好,不然連基本的內容都看不懂、聽不懂了又如何進一步針對托福來準備呢?

如果只是對於一些專有名詞或是少部分比較少用難記的艱澀單字,可以在練習TPO、老托福或是平日的報章雜誌來增加記憶。

2. 聽不懂單字
有些時候其實是懂得單字的,只是當下聽不出來,但看到它的時候又瞬間就想起意思,這個問題的關鍵在於可能一開始在記單字的時候沒有一起記熟發音或根本上就記錯發音,導致當聽到的那一瞬間反應不出正確的單字涵義。

如果單純地聽不懂單字,如果數量多,表示單字量不夠,這個時候就需要增加單字量;但如果是少部分聽不懂,就要試著學習從前後文去推敲單字含意。因為在練習的時候難免會有不懂的單字或是發音相同的單字,所以遇到類似的情況可以先將聽發音試著拚單字在推敲含意,之後再去檢討自己拚字有無錯誤或理解上有無錯誤,這是一個很好的腦力激盪。

 

突破托福聽力停滯期,教你有效準備托福

🔵 問題二:聽得懂單字但是無法完整理解內容或是很慢。

這個問題的關鍵是「辨音」,就是這個詞當出現在你耳朵裡面的時候,你到底能用多久把這個詞識別出來,這就是辨音。你是用0.01秒把它識別出來、還是用0.1秒把它識別出來、還是用1秒把它識別出來、還是用10秒把它識別出來,這直接決定了你的分數。

辨音程度越低,你就需要花更多的心力從記憶中挖掘單字的意思,這樣就很容易因為思考而影響到後面的聽力,所以這時要做的是應該想辦法聽懂!所以如果是因為辨音的問題,就不要只是強化記筆記的能力,這樣只會加重大腦的負擔,不僅筆記成效不好,而且更容易漏掉聽力內容。

辨音的訓練方法前面的文章也要提到,關鍵就是要想辦法增加自己對單字的發音熟悉度,而「聽讀」和「精讀」就是很好的熟悉方式。其中「聽讀」的過程是一個讓你校正自己的腦中的單字和正確發音的過程,同時也是一個讓你掌握如何正確的用嘴去發音的過程。

方法是先聽一遍聽力內容後,就要重新回到這段聽力的開頭,按住「播放/暫停」的快速鍵,每聽完一句,就要暫停一次,然後將整句話進行跟讀,雖然很單調乏味會讓你十分痛苦而且初始效果不明顯,但是一定要堅持下去,1個月後就可以明顯感受出聽力和口說的提升;如果要往下一步,可以先將你的跟讀過程錄音下來,比對一下兩者發音是否相似,並且速度要跟原音檔接近,這樣才算是完整的訓練。

另外輕重音也很重要,因為重音部分通常都是關鍵字所在,而且為了更接近 Native Speaker,這部分的學習也很重要,該重的時候重,該輕的時候輕,這樣說話才會有一種節奏感,而不是整個平鋪直敘死死板板的。

⚠ 在跟讀的過程中,如果遇到不會的或唸錯、卡殼的單字都要挑出來另外紀錄,以便於加深印象,而且時不時拿出來複習。

最後一定要記得精讀作結,因為一開始的跟讀並沒有將聽力內容抄寫下來或學習筆記內容,也沒有針對聽力內容和問題做出解讀分析,這樣其實是很浪費TPO的, 所以精讀不僅是為了再次確實的熟悉單字之外,另外也是訓練抓關鍵字句。

 

突破托福聽力停滯期,教你有效準備托福

🔵 問題三:抓不到關鍵字句。

這個部分比較關鍵是要先注意信號詞,所謂信號詞就是關於提到:原因、結果、轉折、舉例等等的關鍵字詞,可能是單字,也可能是片語,甚至可能是語氣,所以如果能注意到這些信號詞,就能更加有效抓出關鍵字句的坐落點,預先得知才能有效準備。

 

🔹 表示轉折或者對比關係的信號詞

片語 涵義 例句
as a matter of fact 事實上;實際上 As a matter of fact, I’ve lived here for 3 years.
nevertheless 不過,仍然;儘管如此 I knew a lot about the subject already, but her talk was interesting nevertheless.
instead 作為替代 There’s no coffee – would you like a cup of tea instead?
however 然而,但是 This is one possible solution to the problem. However, there are others.

🔹 表示列舉、增補關係的信號詞

片語 涵義 例句
in addition to 除…之外還 In addition to his apartment in Manhattan, he has a villa in Italy and a castle in Scotland.
as well as 除…之外還;也;和 I want to visit Andrew as well as Martin.
furthermore 此外;而且 The house is beautiful. Furthermore, it’s in a great location.
such as 此外;而且 That money is to cover costs such as travel and accommodation.

🔹 表示解釋或者強調關係的信號詞

片語 涵義 例句
in particular 特別,尤其 What in particular did you like about the last apartment that we saw?
namely 也就是;換句話說;亦即 Actually, of one-time mobile phone and other one-time goods buy namely use namely different.

🔹 表示順序關係的信號詞

片語 涵義
First,  second 第一點、第二點…
last but not least 最後(一點)
afterward 過後,以後,後來
first of all 首先

🔹 表示歸納、結論性關係

片語 涵義 例句
overall 總的(來說);全面的(地);包括一切的(地) The overall situation is good, despite a few minor problems.
on the whole 總的來說;整體上講 We have our bad times but on the whole we’re fairly happy.
thus 因此,從而 They planned to reduce staff and thus to cut costs.
in  sum 總而言之 In sum, we had the opportunity to dominate events.

🔹 表示因果關係的信號詞

片語 涵義 例句
As a result 因為…;由於… Profits have declined as a result of the recent drop in sales.
therefore 因此,因而,所以 We were unable to get funding and therefore had to abandon the project.
since 因爲;既然 Since we’ve got a few minutes to wait for the train, let’s have a cup of coffee.

突破托福聽力停滯期,教你有效準備托福

 

🔵 問題四:雖然可以聽懂單字,也可以理解內容,但是筆記太慢導致影響聽力。

這個部分主要有可能是在理解單字的速度不夠快,或者是記筆記技巧上的兩種問題。如果是聽音辨識單字的速度不夠快,表示不夠熟悉該單字的發音,大腦才需要花比較多的時間從記憶中去挖掘單字的意思出來理解,這樣也會影響到後續筆記的速度,所以請回到上面關於辨音的訓練方法加強辨識單字。

如果是記筆記速度不夠快,可以運用縮寫的方式減少抄寫時間,縮寫的方式只要你自己看得懂就好,可以使用圖示或單字短縮來表示內容或關聯性,像是  ↑ ↓ ← → = < > ≠ ∵ ∴ 或是單字短縮像 -ing 簡寫為 g 例如:marketing (市場行銷)MKTg 來表示等等。

突破托福聽力停滯期,教你有效準備托福

🔵 問題五:筆記內容很多,但是答題時無法從筆記中找出所以需要的資料跟答案。

這個主要是記筆記的習慣和技巧問題, 在記筆記的當下就應該依照對話人物和內容作區別劃分,並且去蕪存菁留下真正需要筆記的內容,這樣不僅可以減少答題時還要重新回想該關鍵字句和意思是屬於何人? 還可以配合信號詞和縮寫快速將內容層層細分下,這樣就很容易在答題時找到需要的關鍵內容。


【 突破托福聽力停滯期,教你有效準備托福 】- 實際練習
【 突破托福聽力停滯期,教你有效準備托福 】- 實際練習

實際練習

📝 筆記內容:

  1. number 數字
  2. why
  3. what will they do next
  4. advice
  5. what is true about
  6. feeling

💡 Tip 1 : 突破托福聽力停滯期,教你有效準備托福

太過細節性的內容不一定要抄寫,原因是容易顧此失彼,也就是太過 focus 在微小細節,有時候難免分心反而沒有聽到更重要的內容,因為真正需要注意的重點是「main idea」、「example」和「reason」有直接相關的細節。

💡 Tip 2 : 突破托福聽力停滯期,教你有效準備托福

善用縮寫或是簡單圖形表示單字,提高書寫速度,只要自己知道表達的意思就可以,所以寫得越簡單就能寫更多的內容。

縮寫舉例:↑ 或 + 表示increase、different 縮寫成 diff、∵ 表示 because 等等。

💡 Tip 3 : 突破托福聽力停滯期,教你有效準備托福

先聽在寫,也就是一句話快結束或是再說一些無關重點時的時候在快速抄寫重點內容,切記勿邊聽邊寫,很容易因為思考要抄寫的單字或內容,就忽略聽力的部分。

💡 Tip 4 : 突破托福聽力停滯期,教你有效準備托福

注意筆記抄寫過程內容,也就是筆記內容互有因果相關,也有一定的階層性,所以可以利用符號來呈現其因果或意見上同意與否的問題。

(筆記不是寫得越多越好,重要是有寫到重點。)

 

🎧 TPO 聽力內容 (Conversation)  :

Listen to a conversation between a student and a counselor at the University Counseling Center.

Student: Hi, thanks for seeing me in such short notice. (short notice:臨時通知) {打招呼,客套話}

Counselor: No problem. How can I help?

Student: Well, I think I might have made a mistake coming to the school.

Counselor: What makes you say that?

Student: I’m a little overwhelmed by the size of this place. I come from a small town. (overwhelmed:使難以承受,使不知所措) There were only 75 of us in my high school graduating class. Everyone knew every one. We all grew up together. {學生的背景}

Counselor: So it’s a bit of a culture shock for you? Being one of 15,000 students on a big campus in an unfamiliar city? {針對學生談話提出疑問}

Student: That’s an understatement. I just can’t get comfortable in class or in the dorms.   You know, socially. {學生主要問題}

Counselor: Um, well, let’s start with the academics. Tell me about you classes. {請學生說明上課狀況}

Student: I’m taking mostly introductory courses and some are taught in these huge   lecture halls. {學生回應感到困擾的狀況}

Counselor: And you are having trouble in keeping pace with the material? {指導老師總結上述問題}

Student: No, in fact I got an A on my first economics paper.   It’s just that, it’s so impersonal, I’m not used to it. {學生關鍵問題:impersonal (沒有人情味、冷淡) }

Counselor: Are your classes impersonal?

Student: No, it’s just that, for example, in sociology yesterday, the professor asked a   question, so I raised my hand, several of us raised our hands. And I kept my hand up because I did the reading and knew the answer. But the professor just answered his own question and continued with the lecture. {學生針對impersonal 舉例}

Counselor: Well, in a big room it’s possible he didn’t notice you. Maybe he was starting to save time. In either case I wouldn’t take it personally. {指導老師提出兩個解釋,並表示不論在什麼狀況都不會在意。}

Student: I suppose. But I just don’t know how to, you know, distinguish myself. (distinguish myself:表現突出;使自己出類拔萃)

Counselor: Why not stop by his office during office hours? (stop by:拜訪)

Student: That wouldn’t seem right. You know, taking time from other students who need help?

Counselor : Don’t say that. That’s what office hours are for. There is no reason you couldn’t pop in to say hi and to make yourself known. If you are learning a lot in class,   let the professor know. Wouldn’t you appreciate positive feedback if you were a professor? (pop in:突然出現) {指導老師提出解決方法}

Student: You are right. That’s a good idea.

Counselor: OK, let’s turn to your social life. How’s it going in the dorms?

Student: I don’t have much in common with my roommate or anyone else I’ve met so far. Everyone’s into sports and I’m more artsy, you know, into music. I play the cello. {學生第二個問題,與室友興趣相去甚遠,該學生興趣是演奏大提琴}

Counselor: Hah, have you been playing long?

Student: Since age ten. It’s a big part of my life. At home I was the youngest member of our community orchestra.

Counselor: You are not going to believe this. There is a string quartet on campus, all   students. And it so happened that the cellist graduated last year. They’ve been   searching high and low for a replacement, someone with experience. Would you be interested in auditioning? {指導老師提出讓學生參加弦樂四重試奏,找尋同道}

Student: Absolutely. I wanted to get my academic work settled before pursuing my music here. But I think this would be a good thing for me. I guess if I really want to fit in here I should find people who love music as much as I do. Thank you.

Counselor: My pleasure.

 

突破托福聽力停滯期,教你有效準備托福

其實筆記的功能是輔助回想聽力的內容,因為聆聽過後最容易遺忘的部分其實是細節,但是最重要的是對聽力內容的理解完整性,如果只能聽懂片面,那麼筆記也會零零落落,所以了解的越清楚,就可以省略越多不必要筆記的內容,完整性也會更高。另外在精讀的過程中可以了解到對話內容其實包含一定的邏輯和規律在內,越習慣就能越早推斷下一句可能出現的內容,增加反應的速度。

 

✍問題演練:

 

Q1. What do the speaker mainly discuss?

A) Why the woman has little in common with her roommates
B) How the woman can keep up in her academic studies
C) The woman’s adjustment to life at the university
D) The woman’s decision to transfer to another university

(Ans:C)

Q2. Why does the woman mention her hometown?

A) To draw a contrast to her current situation
B) To acknowledge that she is accustomed to living in big cities
C) To indicate that she has known some people on campus for a long time
D) To emphasize her previous success in academic studies

(Ans:A)

Q3. What does the woman imply about incident that occurred in her sociology class?

A) She was embarrassed because she gave an incorrect answer
B) She was upset because the professor seemed to ignore her
C) She was confused by the organization of the professor’s lecture
D) She was surprised by the comments of the other students

(Ans:B)

Q4. According to the counselor, why should the woman visit her professor’s office?

A) To offer a compliment
B) To offer to help other students
C) To introduce herself
D) To suggest ways of making the class more personal

(Ans:AC)

Q5. What does the woman imply about joining the string quartet?

A) It would enable her to continue a hobby she gave up when she was ten
B) It would allow her to spend more time in her major area of study
C) It would help her stop worrying about her academic studies
D) It world be a way to meet students with similar interests

(Ans:D)

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